PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

Gestalt principles are basically principles of perception.

This figure is consisted on four lines two are horizontal and two are vertical. But some people may be perceived it like a cross.

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

People perceive these figures differently. There are more chances this figure is perceived as cross.

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

This following pattern may be perceived as square. Some can also perceive it as cross.

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

So, it is human tendency to complete the figure even some information is missing.

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

People perceive it as square even lines are not completed.

Gestalt principles of Organization

Most common principles of gestalt theory are;

Proximity

The law of proximity says that items which are close together in space or time tend to be perceived as belonging together or forming an organized group.

Similarity

This law says that same things are considered one thing. Similar items tend to be organized together.

Good continuation

The tendency to perceive a line that starts in one way as continuation in the same way.

Closure

It refers to perceptual processes that organize the perceived world by filling in gaps in stimulation.

Good Form

It is a type of closure. We fill in the gaps perceive form rather than disconnected lines.

Symmetry

It says that there is a tendency to organize things to make a balanced or symmetrical figure that includes all the parts.

Some more examples


cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

These are examples of gestalt principles.

Queen Elizabeth’s vase

It is a gift that was given to the Queen Elizabeth on her silver jubilee. It is a vase but we perceive it as a figure of two faces. We change background in figure and figure into background. Figure and background is very important concept in Gestalt theory. This is crucial concept in visual perception.

Palmer (1977)

Palmer (1977) studied subjects’ recognition of figures such as the ones in following figure. He first showed subjects stimuli such as (a) and then asked them to decide whether fragments (b)-(e) were part of the original figure. Stimuli (a) tends to organize itself into a triangle and a bent letter n. Palmer found that subjects could recognize the parts most rapidly when they were the segments predicted by the Gestalt principles. Thus we see that recognition depends critically on the initial segmentation of the figure. The figure is;

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

Object Perception

The basic idea is that a familiar object can be seen as a known configuration of simple components.

Marr & Nishihara (1978) purposed that familiar objects can be seen as configuration of simple pipe-like components. For instance, in the following figure the human model is presented. Different types and sizes of cylinders make a human model. We perceive these cylinders as human model. The diagram of bird is also consisted on cylinders. Different sizes, types and shapes of cylinders are used to make different diagrams. It is a Computer model.

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

58

cognitive psychology psychology  PATTERN RECOGNITION (continued) Gestalt Theory of Perception

Another contribution was made by Biederman in 1987.

Biederman (1987) has proposed that there are three stages in recognition of an object as a configuration of simpler components.

  1. Segmentation into sub-objects
  2. Classify the category of each sub-object
  3. Recognition as a pattern made of sub-objects
VN:F [1.9.14_1148]
Rating: 0.0/10 (0 votes cast)
VN:F [1.9.14_1148]
Rating: 0 (from 0 votes)