HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION Etymology

The word ‘communicate’ has its root in the Latin word communicate, ‘to share’ international communication ,then, is about sharing knowledge, ideas and beliefs among the various people of the world, and therefore it can be contributing factor in resolving global conflict and promoting mutual understanding among nations.

Introduction

international communication  HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION Etymology

As the new millennium dawned, global television tracked the rise of the sun across the world, with image broad cast live via 300 satellite channels to audience in each of the world’s 24 time zone. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, million of the people can communicate with each other in real time, across national boundaries and time zones, through voice, text, and pictures, and, increasingly, a combination of all three. In a digitally glob, the flow of data across borders has grown exponentially, boosting international commerce, more and more of which is being conducted through new technologies.

Definitions

  • ‘International communication means that communication which accurse among the nations’
  • ‘communication which occurs across international borders’
  • ‘a.k.a. trans border or transnational communication’

Scope of IC

International communication has been traditionally concerned with government-to-government information exchanges, in which a few powerful states dictated the communication agenda. Advances in communication and information technologies in the late twentieth century have greatly enhanced the scope of international communication going beyond government-togovernment and including business-to-business and people-to- people interaction at a global level and at speeds unimaginable even a decade ago. In the contemporary world international communication ‘encompasses political, economic, social, cultural and military concerns’. International communication studies have broadened to include cultural and media studies all these studies which are mention in this table.

Communication and empire

Communication has always been critical to the establishment and maintenance of power over distance. Form the Persian; Greek and roman empires to the British, sufficient network of communication were essential for the imposition of imperial authority, as well as for the international trade and commerce on which they were based. Indeed, the extant of the efficiency of communication. Communications networks and technologies were key to the mechanics of distributed government, military campaigns and trade.

Writing system in empires

While many rulers, including the Greek polis, used inscription for public information ,writing become more flexible and efficient means of conveying information over long distances: Rome, Persia and Great khan of China all utilized writing in system of information gathering and dispersal, creating wide ranging official postal and dispatch system. Mughal period in Indian history, the waqi’a-nawis were employed by the king to appraise them of the progress in the empire. Both horseman and dispatch runner transmitted news and reports.

Importance of trade and culture

The technologies of international communication and globalization may be contemporary phenomena but trade and cultural interchanges have existed for more than two millennia between the Greco-Roman word with Arabia, India and China. Information and ideas were communicated across countries, as shown by the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.

Printing press and Languages

By the eighteenth century, paper introduced from china as a medium of the communication and began to replace the parchment in the Islamic world and spread to medieval Europe. In the fifteenth century developed the printing press and the first printing press was opened in Goa in 1857,in the sixteenth century ,the printing press were turning out thousand of copies of books in all the major European languages. The new languages, especially Portuguese, Spanish, English and French, become the main vehicle of communication for the European colonial power in many parts of the world.

Industrial revolution and transport

The industrial revolution in Western Europe, founded on the profits of the growing international commerce encouraged by colonialization, gave a huge stimulus to the internationalization of communication. With the innovation in transport of railways and steamship, international links were being established that accelerated the growth of European trade and consolidated colonial empire.

The growth of the telegraph

The second half of the nineteenth century saw an expending system of imperial communication made possible by the electric telegraph. Invented by Samuel mores in 1837, the telegraph enabled the rapid transmission of information, as well as ensuring secrecy and code protection. The business community was the first to make use of this new technology. The speed and reliability of telegraph were seen to offer opportunities for profit and international expansion. The rapid development of the telegraph was a crucial feature in the unification of the British Empire. The first commercial telegraph link set up in Britain in 1838,by 1851 a public telegraph service, including a telegraphic money order system ,had been introduced. By the end of the century, as a result of the cable connections, the telegraph allowed the colonial office and the India office to communicate directly with the empire within minutes when, previously, it had taken months for post to come via sea. The first underwater telegraph cable which linked Britain and France become operational in 1851 and the first transatlantic cable, connecting Britain and the USA, in 1866.Between 1851 and 1868,underwater networks were laid down across the north Atlantic ,the Mediterranean Indian ocean and the Persian gulf to regulate the growing internationalization of information, the international Telegraph Union was founded in1865with 22 members, all European expect Persia, representing, the first international institution of the modern era and the first organization for the international regulation of a technical network. The outcomes of the two imperial wars the Spanish- American war and the Boer war (18991902) strengthened the European and US positions in the world and led to a rapid expansion in world trade that demand immediate and vastly improved communication links.

Invention of telephone

The Bell Telephone Company, established by the inventor of telephony Alexander Graham Bell in 1877, Telephone production increased in the US. The first international telephone made between Paris and Brussels in 1887.At the end of the nineteenth century the USA had the largest number of telephones, due largely to the fact that they were manufactured there.

The era of news agencies

The newspaper industry played an important role in the development of international communication and increases the demand of news. The establishment of the news agencies was the most important development in the newspaper industry of the nineteenth century altering the process of news dissemination, nationally and internationally. The francs havas agency was founded in 1835, the German agency wolf in 1849, and the British Reuters in 1851.the US agency, Associated press (AP) in 1848, but only the three European agencies began as international ones; Not until the turn of the century did an American agency move in this direction. These three European agencies, all which were subsidized by their respective governments, controlled information marketed in Europe and were looking beyond the continent to expand their operation.

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