Once the product has been developed, introduced in the market and launched, the product is then before the potential customers. They LEARN about the product, TRY them and ADOPT or REJECT them.

By adoption we mean, he becomes a regular buyer and user of the product
marketing management marketing  CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS

This is what we call CONSUMER ADOPTION PROCESS followed by CUSTOMER LOYALTY PROCESS. This is a major area of concern for us.
As said earlier, the consumer may or may not adopt the product.


This approach was massive distribution of the product and heavy advertisement. Of course, there was a heavy expenditure on advertisement and secondly wasteful activity in this approach


This approach was more realistic. But in this approach, early adoption was limited due to brand loyalty of some of the heavy users and difference in their interests.

Hence we have to direct our efforts to early adoption stage strategy and co-relate to early adoption and late adoption. Early adoption differed from late adoption due to consumer psychology.


Let us first take a look at the INNOVATION DIFFUSION theory. An innovation refers to anything perceived by some one as new. It may have a long history of innovating product. But in true sense its an Innovation to the person, who sees it and it is he who spreads it through a social system. INNOVATION DIFFUSION PROCESS has been defined as

“The spread of idea from the source of invention or creation to the ultimate user or consumers”.

Consumer Adoption Process focuses on the mental process through which an individual goes through from first hearing about the innovation to the final stage of adoption.

  • AWARENESS: this stage is when a consumer hears about an innovation, but lacks information about it
  • INTEREST: the consumer is stimulated to seek information about the innovation
  • EVALUATION: this is when the consumer decides whether to use the product or not
  • TRIAL: the consumer tries the product to estimate the value of innovation
  • ADOPTION: this is when the consumer adopts to use the product on regular basis and use the innovation

The New-product marketers should facilitate consumer movement through these stages and make sure that at no stage a consumer is stuck. This is a change-taking place in his mind. Any change has at least one

Resistance and that is fear. Hesitancy is backed up by fear-this fear must be removed.


As said earlier, there is always resistance to change. WE ALL WANT CHANGE BUT WE DON’T LIKE IT EVEN WHEN THE CHANGE IS FOR THE BETTERMENT

• People differ in readiness to try new products

People differ in their approach towards change. Some differ in adopting new fashion, some in adopting new appliances, some doctors are hesitant to apply new medicines and still some farmers do not apply new implements. This is called adoption culture. After the early adoption, they increase the use and then others follow. Others are late adopters by nature. Let us categorize these customers into three units, One who are early adopters. They are very quick in their response. These people are venture some and willing to try new ideas. In fact they are innovators in life and early adopters.

Secondly Early Majority. They are very careful people and take time to adopt things. They tend to collect information about the change or the product, study carefully and then adopt on the basis of their merits.
The third ones are late majority and traditionalists. They are the ones who adopt late and then use the product.

As marketing managers, we must study the demographics, the psychographics and media characteristics of the product and also keep the theme of advertising message on these lines. We must find the innovators of the product and also opinion leaders and keeping in view the financial stature of the consumers and their category. Then there are certain areas where product change is imminent and quicker while some areas change or innovation in the product is least desired or welcomed

• Personal influence play a key role

In case of some of the products, depending to which category they belong to , personal influence and selling is very important. Demonstrations, experimentation, and even free use is given to influence the change in product or its innovation. Cosmetic items, food items and items in use of household are subject to personal selling.

• Characteristics of the innovation affect the rate of adoption

Some products are quick in innovation, such as fashion items or the ones that bring a direct change in our status etc. Some products take long to adoption. Such as technical products or automobiles etc.

The following things are considered

1 Relative advantage

2 Compatibility

3 Complexity

4 Divisibility Other things, which influence adoption, are: social acceptability, scientific acceptability, cost and certainty

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