The tunable dipole antenna and the aperture-coupled microstrip line resonator antenna are made reconfigurable by changing the length of the radiating elements, which is directly related to the wavelength at which they resonate. Another popular radiating element, the microstrip patch, is two-dimensional in nature and finds extensive application in antenna arrays.
Interest in multifrequency patch arrays led to the reconfigurable antenna array concept In this antenna, groups of patches are electrically connected via MEM switches. The various groups operate at multiple frequencies, according to their size. By electrically connecting or disconnecting patches, the resulting overall patch geometry acquires a side effective length and shape that is concomitant with the desired frequency of operation.